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Comptes rendus de l’Académie from November to December 2013

Fascicle 2013-4

429 p., 55 ill.
Release : 2015
Price : 37,50 € the volume
Subscription for 4 fascicles : people, 150 € / Institutions, 180 €.

Table of contents
  • Le magistère philosophe : de Vienne à Latran V, par M. Alain de Libera
  • Galien dans son contexte : épigraphie, archéologie et codologie, par M. Vivian Nutton

    Galen in context ; epigraphy, archeology, codicology. The career of the great Greek doctor, Galen of Pergamum (129-c. 216) is well known, and his medical theories dominated the Middle Ages and the Renaissance down to the eighteenth century. He was regarded as the prince of doctors, and his opponents dismissed as ignorant charlatans. But he is our only source for much of our information about his upbringing in Asia Minor and his professional life in Rome. Contemporaries such as his philosophical antagonist Alexander of Aphrodisias, Theodotus of Byzantium and Athenaeus of Naucratis acknowledged his eminence as a doctor, but we lack a proper context in which to set him and his activities. This communication presents three new discoveries that help to provide such a context, drawn from epigraphy, archeology and codicology. Turkish archaeologists have found at the Lycian city of Rhodiapolis a series of inscriptions relating to the philosopher-doctors Hermogenes and Heraclitus, the latter honoured around the Greek world of Galen’s day. A few miles from Pergamum, at the spa of Allianoi, a remarkable find of a large cache of medical instruments from the same period throws light on contemporary surgery as it is described by Galen in the Method of Healing and in the short text On examining the physician. Finally, scholars have begun to examine again the mass of pseudo-Galenic material written in his day. They include a small pharmacological text De virtutibus centaureae, translated from Greek into Latin in the Middle Ages, which opens with an appeal to Thessalus of Tralles, a Methodist doctor who is the subject of some of Galen’s strognest attacks. Each of these discoveries helps to provide a new context for Galen’s life and career.

  • Une histoire inédite des croisades du XIVe siècle. Le rouleau d’Arenberg, par M. Jacques Paviot
  • La chronique enluminée d’Ivan le Terrible (1568-1576). Études et perspectives, par M. Pierre Gonneau

    Ivan the Terrible’s illuminated Chronicle (1568-1576) : Studies and perspectives. Between 1568 and 1576, Ivan the Terrible ordered a copy of the Illuminated Chronicle (Litsevoi letopisny svod). Combining the two traditions of so-called “universal” histories and the Russian annals, it offers a richly illustrated story of the world from Creation to the reign of the first Russian Tsar. The preserved (incomplete) texts comprise some 10.000 manuscript folios, with 17.000 miniatures. Ten volumes are kept in three different archival repositories. Seven volumes deal with Russian history, from 1114 to 1567. The most interesting part is the unfinished account of Ivan the Terrible’s reign in the Synodal Tom, which chronicles the period from 1533 through 1567, and in the Imperial Book, which chronicles the period from 1533 through 1553. Both volumes cover the same ground, but their texts differ. The Synodal Tom, which is based on the Nikonian Chronicle, offers a discrete account of the first turbulent years of Ivan’s reign, which is harshly corrected by a cursive hand in its margins. Some scholars think that Tsar Ivan himself dictated these corrections. The corrections are integrated into the text of the Imperial Book. One can see scribal notes on the pages and the outlines of the miniatures have not yet been colored. Work on the Illuminated Chronicle stopped during the second half of 1576. Evidently, the compilers could not compose a fully satisfying tale of the recent past and were running short of paper. The Illuminated Chronicle was a unique iconographic resource, which served for some time as a model, inspiring the copyists and the miniature-painters of the Russian Court. But after the 1590s, it was set aside, probably because Orthodox tradition forbids the representation of living subjects. For almost a century thereafter, Muscovite official iconography privileges archaic iconographic models.

  • Les nomades installés dans la Bactriane (IIe siècle av. J.-C. - Ier siècle ap. J.-C.) : nouvelles découvertes, par M. Henri-Paul Francfort, correspondant de l’Académie
  • Le fatras selon Jean Molinet, par M. Gérard Gros
  • Discours sur la vie et les travaux de l’Académie au cours de l’année 2013, par M. Jean-Marie DENTZER, Président de l’Académie
  • Lecture du Palmarès 2013 et proclamation de la liste des nouveaux archivistes paléographes, par M. Roland RECHT, Vice-président de l’Académie
  • Allocution d’accueil à la cérémonie solennelle de rentrée sous la Coupole, par M. Michel ZINK, Secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie
  • La Petite Académie, une commission d’experts pour la mémoire de la monarchie, par M. Jean-Pierre BABELON, membre de l’Académie
  • Du cabinet des Adelphes à l’Académie des Inscriptions : contributions à l’histoire de cette institution, par M. Marc FUMAROLI, de l’Académie française, membre de l’Académie
  • Rapport sur la vie et les activités de l’IFAO en 2012-2013, par M. Nicolas GRIMAL, membre de l’Académie
  • La forteresse ourartéenne d’Erebuni (Erevan, Arménie) : une nouvelle lecture de la fin du royaume d’Ourartou ?, par M. Stéphane Deschamps

    The Urartian fortress of Erebuni (Yerevan, Armenia) : a new reading a new perspective on the end of the kingdom of Urartu ? After a first program devoted to the study of a small palace of the Achaemenid period, then the study of dwellings occupied betwen the end of the sixth century to the fourth century BC (Beniamin, region of Shirak, 1999-2007), the French–Armenian archaeological expedition has engaged, since 2008, a new excavation program in the fortress of Erebuni (Yerevan). Built on the hill of Arin Berd in 782 BC., the fortress of Erebuni is one of the three main ourartian strongholds founded in the plain of the Araxes : Erebuni (Arin Berd, Yerevan) Argishtihinili (Armavir) and Teishebaini (Karmir Blour, Yerevan). As Argishtihinili, also founded by King Argishti and Teishebaini, founded by King Rusa II in the first quarter of the seventh century BC., they are both centers of power and control, religious centers and « granaries ». The research program conducted in Erebuni since 2008 led to reconsider the archaeological data collected during the pioneering research carried out in the years 1950 to 1960, both on a topographical aspects (organization of the sanctuary of Haldi) but also - and perhaps especially - on a chronoglogical point of view. One of the most difficult question is the period of transition that extends from the end of the Urartian period down to the beginning of the Achaemenid period.. Long referred as « late Urartu », following assumptions proposed by B. B. Piotrovsky after the excavations of Teishebaini, suggesting a destruction of this fortress ca. 585 BC., at the time of collapse of Urartu, this period should be reconsidered in its duration to the light of new hypotheses based, in particular, on the most recent studies of the corpus of ourartian inscriptions, or the Assyrian-Babylonian chronicles. Thus, the excavations in the fortress of Erebuni lead us to propose a new interpretation of the transitional period between the middle of the seventh and the middle of the sixth century BC. Far from showing a single continuous occupancy, this period saw the development of new architectural projects including the large dining thirty columns, long classified as Apadana, is one of the most striking features. Far from showing a simple continuation of the occupation, this period saw the development of new architectural programs including the main thirty-columned hall, so-called Apadana, is one of the most original features. These new data led to propose a new page of the history of Armenia before its integration into the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

  • Aperçu sur l’empire Xixia et sur la langue et l’écriture tangoutes, par M. Li Fanwen
  • Traduire et commenter le Coran dans la péninsule Ibérique (XIIe-XVIIe s.), par Mme Nuria Martinez de Castilla
  • La topographie légendaire de l’ermitage de Katsura. Renaissance aristocratique et paysagère dans le Japon du XVIIe siècle, par M. Nicolas Fiévé

    The legendary topography of Katsura Villa The revival of the aristocracy and landscape design in 17th century Japan. In the 17th century, Prince Hachijō no miya Toshihito (1579-1629), the younger brother of the Emperor Goyōzei (r. 1586-1611), undertook the construction of a retirement villa in the locality of Katsura on the outskirts of Kyoto. His son, Prince Toshitada (1620-1662), expanded the villa and its grounds, giving the site its present-day appearance. Owing to the beauty of its architecture and landscape design, the villa served as a model for a great many retirement villas built by the nobility throughout the Edo period (1603-1868). As a unique example of its kind and one of the best-preserved vestiges of Japan’s rich tradition of aristocratic architecture, the legacy of Katsura remains invaluable. No other 17th century mansion so perfectly expresses the quintessence of Japan’s ancient elite culture. At the time the villa was built, the court was barred from all political activity and encouraged to live a life of leisurely and cultural pursuits. The princes, invoking the genius loci of Katsura, thus embarked on an unprecedented architectural and landscape project that would be an ode to the genius of past poets incarnating the most glorious moments of imperial virtue. Drawing inspiration from the mythical tales and literature that transfigured the locality, and using the architectural forms and devices of the day, they sought to bring back to life the gardens of the ancient aristocracy. The resulting complex and garden played a pivotal role in the subsequent development of Japanese architecture and landscape design. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the intertwining myths and legends that shaped the history of Katsura from ancient times on (573-1185). This history reflects the fundamental relationship between man and sacred, earth and heaven, and reveals the elements that constituted the legendary topography of Katsura, a major centre for the Heian aristocracy, a land of renaissance, revived and glorified anew through the Hachijō Princes’ architectural endeavour.

  • ISAONA, APAONA. Acclamations grecques latinisés dans le milieu des sodalités africo-romaines, par M. Azedine BESCHAOUCH, associé étranger de l’Académie
  • La France savante : état d’avancement du projet du Comité des Travaux historiques et scientifiques, par M. Bruno Delmas
  • L’actualité du Timée, par M. Bernard SAINT-SERNIN, membre de l’Académie des Sciences morales et politiques
  • Rapport sur l’état et les activités de l’École française de Rome en 2012-2013, par M. Jacques VERGER, membre de l’Académie
  • Rapport sur l’état et les activités de l’École française d’Athènes pour l’année 2012-2013, par M. Laurent PERNOT, membre de l’Académie
  • Rapport sur l’état et les activités de l’École biblique et archéologique de Jérusalem en 2012-2013, par M. Christian ROBIN, membre de l’Académie

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