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Comptes rendus de l’Académie from January to March 2014

Fascicle 2014-1

604 p., 163 ill.
Release : 2015
Price : 37,50 € the volume
Subscription for 4 fascicles : people, 150 € / Institutions, 180 €.


Table of contents
  • Discours du Président sortant, par M. Jean-Marie DENTZER, Président sortant de l’Académie
  • Discours du Président entrant, par M. Roland RECHT, Président de l’Académie
  • La stèle des Géléontes au sanctuaire de Claros, par M. Denis Rousset (note d’information)
  • La salle d’assemblée de l’Académie royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres au Louvre d’après un dessin de Gabriel de Saint-Aubin daté de 1773, par M. Jean-Pierre BABELON, membre de l’Académie
  • L’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres au XVIIIe siècle : recrutements et carrières académiques, par Mme Chantal Grell
  • Montaigne, ciuis romanus, documents inédits de l’Archivio storico capitolono, par M. Jean-Robert Armogathe, correspondant de l’Académie (note d’information)
  • Nouvelles formes d’habitat en Albanie du Nord du VIIe au XIIIe siècle, par Mme Etleva Nallbani

    New settlement patterns in northern Albania, 7th-13th century. This new archaeological research programme is focused on the evolution of the western Balkans, a crossing region between East and West, from the end of Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The programme aims to define the mechanisms of the medieval societies’ establishment in the area. The excavations conducted since 2008 at two important sites, Lezha (ancient Lissos on the Adriatic coast) and Komani (Dalmace, in the neighbouring continental hinterland), are contributing to understand the organisation of the settlement, the dynamics and the history of the population, as well as the productions and the interregional exchanges along the vast Drin Valley in North-West Albania. Within the framework of the decline of the classical urban phenomenon, new settlements, mainly located on hill tops, transform the traditional urban hierarchies. The continuous occupation of both of the sites throughout the early Middle Ages attest an important restructuring of the settlement, inhabited by a population organised according to a composite system of value and social hierarchy, where ecclesiastical authority becomes the main reference.

  • Allocution en hommage à la mémoire de M. Jean MARCADÉ, par M. Michel ZINK, Secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie
  • Une nouvelle stèle funéraire attique dédiée à la mémoire de Jean Marcadé, par M. Georges Despinis
  • Les couleurs et les ors retrouvés de la sculpture antique, par M. Philippe Jockey
  • Des mots pour les choses selon Jean Marcadé, par M. Alain PASQUIER, membre de l’Académie
  • Allocution d’accueil au colloque « Tempus et Tempestas », par M. Michel ZINK, Secrétaire perpétuel de l’Académie
  • Les origines de la conception indienne des âges du monde, par M. Jean Haudry
  • Des saisons dans la poésie sanskrite du Cambodge, par M. Dominic Goodall
  • Le temps des brâhmanes, par M. Pierre-Sylvain FİLLİOZAT, membre de l’Académie
  • Paix de Dieu et communes dans le royaume capétien, de l’an mil à Louis VI, par M. Dominique Barthélémy, correspondant français de l’Académie
  • Liturgie et récits des origines dans l’art roman : les plaques émaillées d’Henri de Blois, par M. Christian Heck

    Since 1852, two exceptionnal pieces are preserved in the British Museum : enamels on copper made by mosan goldsmiths, probably in England, about the middle of XIIth century. They form two half-medaillons ; the first one presents two censing angels, one holding a chalice ; the other shows a bishop as donor, holding his crossier and a portable altar. The plaques were parts of an altar cross, whom they constituted the upper and lower edges. The texts inscribed let identify the donor as Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester (1129-1171). By the high position of the personnage, grandson of Guillaume le Conquérant, nephew of King Henri Ist, brother or King Stephen, and one of the more important ecclesiastics of XIIth c. ; by the litterary perfection of the inscriptions ; by the technical and artistic excellence of the enamels, we are in presence of a first rank work of art, which from a long time as retained attention of art historians. Our analysis, which relates cultural anthropology to the texts and the works of art, is focused on the gesture and position of the donor, who takes in his arms the portable altar, and puts his head on its upper surface. The direct relation between the consecration of christian altars, and the stone erected by Jacob in Bethel (Genesis 28), can be found in a long series of exegeses, in liturgical texts, and in an epigraphic and iconographic tradition in the religious buildings and their decoration. In theses series, the accent is put particularly on Jacob’s gesture, who received his vision when he slept, the head on the stone. Hagiographic and exegetic texts, practices, works of art, give to this act – the head on an altar – an essential symbolic value. Here Henri de Blois inscribes himself in the liturgy, and in the deliberate recall of a founder narrative.

  • La part du rêve : la collection d’antiquités égyptiennes d’Auguste Rodin, par Mmes Bénédicte Garnier et Nathalie Kayser-Lienhard

    “That was my dream” : Auguste Rodin’s collection of Egyptian antiquities. The collection of Egyptian antiquities kept in the Rodin Museum is above all that of a sculptor. Rodin drew among his acquisitions of alabaster vases the material of his work. Furthermore, he was inspired by the objects that he gathered, which constituted a catalogue of forms. Between 1893 and 1917, the sculptor bought from antiquities dealers and at auction showrooms more than eight hundred objects from Egypt. They were added to the over six thousand Greco-Roman, Asian, and European objects he had. He exhibited his collections alongside his work in the Brillant villa in Meudon, then from 1911 in Paris at the Biron mansion. In 1916, he donated his own sculptures, paintings and drawings, as well as his collections of antiques and paintings, to the French state, along with his archives, library, and the moral rights to his work. The collection can be defined as much by the importance of its objects as by the gaps that characterize it. The artist was interested in materials (stone and composite materials, wood, mouna, ivory, bronze, and bone) and in the representation of all forms of life. With the exception of a large wooden sarcophagus, no mummy, jewelry, or papyrus is met with. Although he bought about twenty plaster masks, he didn’t have a single Fayum portrait. This study, which follows up on the initial work of Jean Saint Fare Garnot, assisted by Jean Leclant, Claire Lalouette and Jean Yoyotte, is the result of collaboration between the Rodin Museum and the Egyptological Research Center of the Sorbonne, revealing the points of view of both an Egyptologist and an art historian. In 2014, the catalogue “Rodin and Egyptian Art” will be published progressively on line on the website of the Rodin Museum. The whole collection will be exhibited at the Rodin Museum in 2018.

  • La plus ancienne représentation de Moïse, dessinée par un juif vers 100 ap. J.-C., par Mme Hélène Cuvigny (note d’information)

    The oldest representation of a Biblical scene, drawn by a jew around AD 100 The ostracon was found in the rubbish deposit of the praesidium of Umm Balad. This praesidium was the administrative centre of a small quarry which was opened under Domitian on the southern flank of Mons Porphyrites, but was abandoned a few years later because of the bad quality of its grano-diorite. The ostracon represents a scene which is extremely rare in the iconography, known as the ‘vocation of Moses’ (Ex. 4, 1-8) : while Moses was tending the flocks of his father-in-law in the land of Midian he received a call from the Lord to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt to the Promised Land. But how would the Hebrews take him seriously ? The Lord sweeps away his hesitations by offering him magic powers. In a single, very expressive drawing the artist has united the first two miracles, that of the rod and that of the leprous hand. The artist was certainly one of the Jews who were employed in the metallon and who are mentioned often in the Greek ostraca from Umm Balad. This naïve drawing closely follows the text of Exodus and trespasses against the taboo on images expressed in the second commandment. It is, in fact, the oldest representation of a biblical scene.

  • Contribution de la céramique chinoise à l’histoire médiévale swahili en Afrique orientale (IXe-XVe s.), par Mme Zhao Bing

    The Contribution of Chinese Ceramics to the Medieval Swahili History on the East African Coast, 9th-15th century C.E. In geographical terms, the medieval Swahili world corresponds to the narrow corridor of the eastern African coast that extends from Somalia to Mozambique, including the Comoro Islands and northern Madagascar. The rare written sources relevant to its history were provided by Arabian, Indian, Chinese and European travelers and merchants. References to Chinese ceramics are almost completely nonexistent in these records. Because of their durability, fragments of Chinese ceramic survive in significant numbers at Swahili port sites whereas the great majority of other goods have disappeared. The present lecture proposes to examine how Chinese ceramic shards can provide relevant chronological, spatial, economic and cultural contexts for understanding the medieval Swahili history. For the initial period (9th–12th century), the evolution of the circulation of Chinese imports documents the movement of commercial frontiers, a phenomenon that might be intimately linked to the advance of Islam in East Africa. As for the period at its height (13th–15th century), archaeology reveals evidence of a culture of status constructed around these exotic objects. In effect, in Swahili cities, where the written word seems not to have played a central role in the transmission of collective memory, Chinese ceramics were closely linked to social practices that had the function of insuring political and cultural permanence.

  • Grammaire comparée et langues romanes : la discussion méthodologique autour du Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom), par Mme Eva Buchi

    Lexicographical project Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) » The Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) is first of all a European (mostly French and German, as it is financed by the ANR and the DFG) lexicographical project whose entries are being published initially on a specially dedicated web site (http://www.atilf.fr/DERom) and whose goal is to replace one day Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke’s venerable Romanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (REW3 1935). But the DÉRom has gone beyond its strictly lexicographical dimension, since it has been, practically since its launching in September 2007, the centre of a methodological debate which gives no indication of being on the verge of running out of steam. Indeed, while defining itself as a work loyal to the tradition of Meyer-Lübke, the DÉRom sets itself apart from its illustrious predecessor on the basis of a crucial methodological point : where REW’s etyma are made up of lexical units taken from (or at least inspired by) written Latin, DÉRom’s are reconstructed by the method of comparative grammar, a method formerly considered of little interest in the domain of Romance etymology. Whereas the DÉRom project has profited from a quite vast membership movement, numbering today more than fifty members from sixteen countries, its methodological orientation has led to serious critiques, as a significant group of Romance linguists considers pointless the application of comparative reconstruction to the Romance lexicon. This lecture intends on the one hand to present the issues at stake in this debate, and, on the other hand, to illustrate it by concrete examples from the dictionary.

  • Les premières communautés agropastorales de Bulgarie (VIIe-VIe millénaires av. J. C.), des productions matérielles aux sociétés humaines, par Mme Laure Salanova

    The beginning of the Neolithic represents a major step in the History with the apparition of agriculture and pottery. If this change is nowadays well known in the Near East, where it took place gradually between 12 000 and 7 000 cal. BC, few data were available for the Balkans, although this region has held an important role of relay westwards, a bridge between the Near East and the Western Europe. Between 1986 and 2011, an interdisciplinary team has worked in Kovačevo, located in the southwest corner of Bulgaria, filling partially this gap. The well-preserved stratigraphy has revealed the unsuspected age of the earliest Neolithic communities in the Southern Balkans, which appeared around 6100 cal. BC. The study of the material culture, especially of the 23 tons of pottery found during the excavation, was focused on the cultural identity of the potters and the social organisation of crafts on the site, highlighting influences diversity and increasing specialisation of the productions. Afterwards, an extending programme was developed northwards, demonstrating Neolithic plurality in Western Bulgaria. Sediment deposits, pottery productions and herd composition show meaningful differences between the North and the South of Bulgaria. From these results, diffusion mechanisms westwards are discussed, particularly to Italia where the earliest Neolithic sites are known around 5900 cal. BC, through material comparisons and social reorganization that went in parallel with the evolution of the first Neolithic communities from Bulgaria. This evolution and the Neolithic appearance westwards seem indeed to be linked by migration phenomena. The excavations project under development in Bulgaria aims to understand the motives of departures westwards.

  • Amrith dans la Pérée d’Arados, nouvelles recherches sur la période phénicienne tardive, par M. Michel Al-Maqdissi
  • Un port d’Arabie entre Rome et l’Inde, par Mme Alessandra Avanzini
  • La constitution de la collection de sculptures de la Renaissance au musée du Louvre (1824-1972), par Mme Geneviève Bresc-Bautier
  • Érudition gallicane et censure romaine : Le Traité des études monastiques de Mabillon devant le Saint-Office, par M. Jean-Louis Quantin

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